# Questions tagged [range-proofs]

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### Use range proofs to make fees proportional to amounts in transactions

For what I could understand, reading a bit about the use of Bulletproof in Monero, it is used to prove that the amounts in the transaction are between 0 and 2^N-1, where N is the number of bits, ...
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### Why are rangeproofs necessary?

Title. This is probably a remarkably stupid question, but I digress. Now, I understand the point of rangeproofs, but I don't understand why they're actually necessary. So, rangeproofs prevent a ...
1 vote
329 views

### What prevents double-spending?

Let's say I have three outputs that I own: 1st output with 1 Monero, 2nd output with 1 Monero, 3rd output with 100 Monero. The logic of range proofs supposes that the amount of input Monero equals to ...
74 views

### Is there a monero wallet that can do a range proof?

The question here Proving amount of Monero - Range Proofs Talks about how to do a range proof, but it doesn't quite say how to do it using existing methods of making a payment. I want to prove a ...
94 views

### Why does the Bulletproof prover always have T1 = rct::scalarmultKey(T1, INV_EIGHT)?

I am reading the source code of Monero. In the Bulletproof prover, there is always a line like T1 = rct::scalarmultKey(T1, INV_EIGHT). Why is there always a INV_EIGHT multiplication with the point? ...
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### How does having a negative number in a Pedersen commitment, create money out of thin air?

Given two inputs of value: 10, 11 And two outputs of value 31, -10 The Pedersen commitment would look like: Let b + c - d - e = k (10G + bH + 11G + cH) - (31G + dH + -10G + eH) = 0G + kH Without ...
295 views

### What exactly are bulletproofs replacing in monero?

I am stuck on these questions in understanding bulletproofs: Are bulletproofs a way to hide the sender and the amount? What is the difference between bulletproofs, RingCT and Ring signatures? Edit: ...
177 views

### Hiding transaction values using pederson commitments and range proofs in accounts model

Conceptually how does one hide transaction values using pederson commitments and range proofs in ethereum(accounts model)? The key issue is how can we make it happen in an accounts model and not in ...
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### What is the "SpendProofV1..." or "OutProofV1..." in the details of a sent transaction in the GUI?

I'm guessing it's either the Confidential Transaction range-proof? Or is it some kind of proof-of-payment I can send to the recipient to prove... payment...? Either way, what privacy or security is ...
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1 vote
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### Are range proofs output specific?

For example imagine the situation where i have one unspent output valued at 0.5 XMR In another wallet i also have another unspent output valued at 0.5 XMR even thought these outputs share the same ...
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### Proving amount of Monero - Range Proofs

As far as i understand Monero currently uses range proofs (Soon to be bulletproofs) to prove that when an amount of Monero is sent that amount is between 0 and some large number. this is to protect ...
• 127
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### Using Monero as proof of funds

I'm writing an article about the future of Healthcare. I wondered if it was possible to use Monero to make a proof of funds. For example: the hospital wants to know that I can pay for the medical care ...
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### What are bulletproofs?

I have heard that Monero transactions are relatively large, and that Bulletproofs will make Monero transactions smaller. Can someone give a high-level overview about what these are, and how they ...
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### How will payment metadata be incorporated into the range proof?

According to this comment, which reads: @kenshi84 I now agree with JollyMort's idea that we should not allow integrated subaddresses and should not allow multiple integrated addresses in a multiple ...
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### Impact of Range Proof Optimizations on M_O

After beginning at 60kB, the M_0 (minimum penalty-free block size) proved problematic after the v4 fork (introduction of RingCT) led to increased transaction (and block) sizes. Following an initial ...
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### How will the range proof size reduction be accomplished?

According to this answer Range proofs are currently 6304 bytes (per output) and will drop in the future by at least 1024 bytes. How will the future 1024 byte reduction per output be accomplished? ...
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### Can the size of range proofs be reduced?

Range proofs are currently quite large, roughly 12-30kb. Is it likely that range proofs will become smaller in the future through various optimizations?
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### In ringct, how are the range proofs kept separate from the pedersen commitments in a transaction?

Are the range proofs and pedersen commitments part of a transaction? Or are they not kept in a transaction at all?
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### How will RingCT dust work?

Right now, if you have a small piece of Monero, you can spend it with mixin 0. That way, you can collect a bunch of them without paying too high of fees. RingCT will hide amounts, meaning it won't be ...
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