Questions tagged [proof-of-work]

Proof of Work is a mining process aiming at producing a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify. In the case of mining Monero, the CryptoNight PoW is used.

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Miner is waiting a long time for new jobs

I have implemented a custom RandomX Pool miner with C++ which even outperforms XMRig. However after submitting a share the miner does not always get a new job instantly. Sometimes it takes several ...
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How is a block hash calculated?

I am trying to understand how Monero hashes blocks. I understand there is something called a "block hashing blob" that is combined with a nonce, but how can I get the block hashing blob for ...
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RandomX slow hash "miners" parameter

I want to write fast RandomX verification in Python. I'm using pybind11 and want to bind the C function rx_slow_hash: void rx_slow_hash(const uint64_t mainheight, const uint64_t ...
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What is the output of a hash so that the PoW is validate

I understand the concept of hash, PoW and difficulty, but what I want to know is that in monero, when a block is mined, what is the rule to accept that block as valid and when the difficulty change, ...
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Validate a job's result in a proxy pool

I'm writing my own proxy pool implementation. I have problem with share verification. I received a job from upsteam mining pool: job={ "blob": "...
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How to calculate job target in hex

I received a mining job with target = f3220000. My XMRig miner logged the following statement: new job from ... diff 480045 algo rx/0 height 2027084 I want to find answers to the following ...
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Cant't find out where replace the nonce to get a blob hash

I'm trying to understand the basics of mining and have a very specific question about hashing a blob. When I start a miner and capture the packets, I get a job from the pool and then the work ...
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What other cryptocurrency has implemented the RandomX PoW for mining?

With the move to RandomX for PoW mining on Monero, what other coins have forked RandomX into their coin? I know Loki has done it with RandomXL but have any others implemented it?
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What PoW hashing algorithms did Monero historically use?

Originally, Monero used the Cryptonight PoW algorithm, then started modifying it to thwart ASICs getting large parts of the network hash rate. What is the timeline of these changes ?
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What's the difference between the CryptoNightR and RandomX algorithms?

My understanding is that CryptoNightR randomly creates different calculations for each block, and that RandomX does the same, but using a system where any bytecode can be translated into a calculation....
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Are there any test input and output vectors for the variant 4 PoW of Monero out there?

Trying to play around with implementations, and want to be sure the baseline I've put together is correct. It appears that in the Monero Project github, the test vectors only go up to variant 2.
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What are the differences between Cryptonight-R and Cryptonight v4?

Monero is switching to Cryptonight variant 4 (CNv4) in March 2019. CNv4 is based on Cryptonight-R, with some modifications. What are these modifications ?
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How is CryptoNight variant 4 increasing the CPU to ASIC performance ratio?

At block 1788000, Monero will switch PoW from CryptoNight variant 2 to variant 4. This change has two main goals: break any current CNv2 ASIC make hypothetical CNv4 ASICs perform less well compared ...
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What are some proposed solutions to preventing ASIC's from mining Monero?

Monero forks every 6 months or so to prevent ASICs, but this doesn't fully deter ASICs from being built. Even with the new proposed RandomX pow algo, eventually ASICs will be built. What are some ...
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Does Monero (XMR) or Pirate (ARRR) offer better privacy and security?

I have read several comparisons between Monero and Pirate. Can someone please explain to me the objective pros and cons about their privacy offerings? Is one more secure than the other? What are the ...
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Was there evidence of any ASICS after the new POW upgrade in october 2018?

There was obviously ASICS made prior to the 2018 March POW fork, but was there evidence of this for the 2018 October fork?
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Where in the PoW block header is the variant version?

I asked this question: How do miners, connected to a pool via stratum, know when to switch PoW variant during a hard fork? Which was marked as a duplicate of this question: Can pool miners update ...
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Can pool miners update early and then the pool software will automatically ask its workers for new POW when necessary?

Many people mine Monero in a pool. Monero has recently changed its proof of work, and it is about to do so again. There may be more changes to its proof of work in the future. When miners update ...
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What are the changes in CryptoNight v2 PoW algorithm?

According to the last Dev Meeting, PoW changes to the upcoming fork are almost finished. What exactly will be changed and how will it affect speed on CPUs and GPUs but also potential ASICs or FPGAs?
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How hard would it be replace the PoW checks for something else?

How hard would it be replace the PoW checks for something else? (e.g. checking signatures for some PoA scheme, i guess those checks would replace the check_hash calls?)
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Could proof-of-stake be implemented in a privacy coin, even in principle?

Is there, even in principle, a smart way to implement proof-of-stake in any privacy currency where you are always hiding your balance from others? (I'm not interested in discussing the advantages of ...
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Implementing Cryptonightv1 PoW algo change but miners are able to mine with both Cryptonightv0 or Cryptonightv1 now

I am modifying a cryptonote to transition over to PoW algo cryptonightv1 from cryptonightv0 and I am having a weird issue that I can't figure out...I'm starting to pull out my hair over this. I've ...
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Can anyone explain the working of CryptoNight?

I went through this. And I could not comprehend well. For example, in SHA-256, it takes any type of input and gives a 256-bit output. And if we add a random number as a tail in the input, the output ...
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XMRig-Proxy Performance

I have a farm of around 50 rigs running xmrig. I'm setting up xmrig-proxy, but am having trouble finding information. Does it set individual difficulties? I have some old desktops churning 200H/s ...
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What exactly has been changed in PoW algorithms in the v7 fork?

I have read the official announcement about the current PoW change and also seen the discussion on GitHub but this is very long and very technical. Could someone summarise what exactly has been ...
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Where can I find the POW hash of blocks?

I want to find the POW hashes of each block, which start with or end with many zeros. This answer showed an example of the POW hash. I tried many blockchain explorers and didn't find any one with ...
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Are there any extant implementations of the groestl that Monero PoW uses that utilize AesNi instructions and byte-slicing?

I've been trying to put together a byte-sliced groestl (small) that use AesNi. I've seen plenty of groestl (large) implementations that do this, and have been using them for inspiration, but when you'...
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What are the differences between the slow hash, fast hash, and tree hash on the monero github?

Additionally, if I wanted to put together my own implementation of the Monero CryptoNight PoW, specifically for mining, and was using one of those (with the corresponding tests on GitHub) to validate ...
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Where can I find some test inputs and outputs for the CryptoNight (Monero PoW) hash algorithm?

I'm interested in cobbling together my own implementation, but in order to validate it, I need to find some valid inputs/outputs (4 minimum, i.e. one that goes through the groestl path, one that goes ...
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How to Generate a Blob for PoW Hashing

The Cryptonight PoW hash function (cns008) expects an input (a blob on which to mine a new block). I know that a mining blob can easily be obtained via the monerod daemon's JSON-RPC interface by ...
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How many hashes are needed to solve a Monero block of difficulty 1?

For example, for ZCash, it takes, on average, 8192 hashes (aka "solutions") to solve a block of difficulty 1. That number is determined in the source code by a 256-bit target threshold (...
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How would a transition from cryptonight PoW to cuckoo cycle work?

What would be the smoothest transition for changing the PoW? Miners would need to be given a heads up to install new software but how would the switch over happen in practice? The block before the ...
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How does CryptoNight "depend on all the previous blocks"?

Originally, I thought the CryptoNight puzzle was similar to the SHA2 puzzle, with a more exotic hash function replacing SHA2. In other words, the puzzle was essentially H(prev||nonce) < diff, but ...
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10 votes
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Energy consumed to protect the Monero network

Based on typical Monero mining equipment used today, approximately how many Kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity are consumed each day in by computers running the Monero cryptonight PoW mining ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is "Two-phase Proof of Work" suitable for Monero?

The "Two-phase Proof of Work" is an evolution of Bitcoin proposed by Emin Gün Sirer to mitigate the risk of very large pools getting too much control on Monero. A two-phase PoW consists of a block ...
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Would having two separate proof of work algorithms for Monero be more secure?

Say 50% is CryptoNight and 50% is an ASIC friendly PoW, would this create more security? Maybe current miners would leave, creating less security? This might be an idea that would be better for the ...
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What other benefits does Cuckoo Cycle have over cryptonight, is it quantum computer proof?

I have read Which reasons were discussed for potentially changing the proof-of-work algorithm? but aside from being more asic 'resistant' and faster to verify what other reason should monero change ...
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Can monero network exist without miners?

Can the Monero network exist without miners? Can we just run monerod on home computers? Must some of us use the start_mining command (or a similar command in other mining software) to support the ...
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4 votes
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How does Boolberry's Wild Keccak work?

Boolberry uses an algo named Wild Keccak. This is refered to as a blockchain based POW. How does this work?
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15 votes
2 answers
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What is Monero's mechanism for defending against a double-spend attack?

The title says it all, but I want to frame the issue two ways, in hopes of a slightly more in-depth answer. With Bitcoin, the blockchain is transparent. In the "ordinary course of business" in the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why does mining generate new coins on a fresh testnet?

So far I thought that mining is the process, when the network verifies transactions. When a transaction is verified, it gets added to the blockhain. In other words, a new block has been found. Then ...
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16 votes
2 answers
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Will Monero ever move to Proof of Stake (PoS)?

As an ecological dilemma, burning a lot of energy via PoW seems not to align with the progressive agenda of an aspiring global cryptocurrency.
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Which reasons were discussed for potentially changing the proof-of-work algorithm?

Which reasons were discussed for potentially changing the proof-of-work algorithm to something else in the future (Cuckoo cycle in particular)?
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12 votes
2 answers
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Mining Monero with Pencil and Paper

People have successfully performed SHA-256 hashing with pencil and paper If I wanted to perform the CryptoNight PoW by hand how would I do so? Are there any PoW instructions that a human with a ...
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9 votes
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CryptoNight-Lite PoW modifications in Aeon

What PoW modifications are contained in CryptoNight-Lite as implemented by Aeon? How much faster is blockchain synchronization because of these modifications compared to standard CryptoNight? What ...
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Why does Monero use proof of work?

Why does Monero use proof of work instead of something that saves electricity like proof of stake? Have there been any serious to abandon PoW for PoS at some point similar to the plan of Ethereum ...
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