Is it possible to use pool mining to mine to a wallet created with monero-wallet-cli stored on my local machine?
If so, what is this minimum amount that needs to be pool mined before I will find a balance on my local machine?
If you generated a wallet, you can use it. Online, offline, doesn't matter.
The minimum amount you have to mine before you will see the balance in your wallet is called "minimum payout" and depends on the pool you use. Every pool has a different minimum payout.
Take a look at this link so see different pools and their minimum payout.