You have to use CUDA 9.
Get it via:
wget https://developer.nvidia.com/compute/cuda/9.0/Prod/local_installers/cuda_9.0.176_384.81_linux-run and then run
sudo sh cuda_9.0.176_384.81_linux.run. Make sure it is correctly installed. You have to run the script multiple times!
The error seems like you haven't installed cuda 9. Run the install script and read the output. If it's not installed it's likely because you have cuda 8 installed. Therefore remove all cuda files/installs with
sudo apt remove --purge nvidia* Then check
/usr/local/cuda* and remove it if necessary. After this try to install cuda 9 with the steps from above.
The only way to compile and run it with Ubuntu 17.10 for me was using clang 3.8 and cuda 9.