"Normal" transactions are locked for 10 blocks to prevent invalid outputs from being used in ring signatures.

Why are coinbase transactions (mined coins) locked longer? Are there additional risks linked to those transactions?

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As far as I understand, this is to make sure that the coins were mined on the longest blockchain, and thus the longer "delay" of 60 blocks is meant as a safeguard against transactions becoming invalid because of blockchain reorganizations. These might change several dozens of blocks sometimes.

While 60 blocks should typically be enough, I have seen some larger blockchain reorgs on testnet. So, if you were to spend mining rewards of blocks that would later become invalid, that transaction would also be invalidated.

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