What is the procedure for accessing my full node remotely from another location?
What security precautions are most important when doing so?
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As @antanst has said, I would also suggest using
--rpc-bind-port to bind to an external interface but only if your instance is inside an internal/trusted network. I see no reason why your instance should be publicly accessible (if there are reasons, someone please comment).
If you must connect across the internet, I would advise to bind only to localhost and run a Tor onion-site, or I2P server tunnel, or Kovri server tunnel, or any combination of the three, and then direct them to your designated port. From there, you can use torsocks or an I2P client tunnel to connect directly to your node with the safety and security provided by either overlay network.
--rpc-bind-port command line arguments to make it listen to RPC commands in an IP address other than localhost. The RPC port (18081 by default) should be accessible from the internet if you are running the node behind NAT.
Use an encrypted tunnel to connect to the daemon, such as OpenVPN or an SSH tunnel.
--restricted-rpc argument if you want to use only view commands.