In the post What privacy or security trade offs are associated with not running your own full node? the privacy ramifications of connecting monero-wallet-cli to a remote node are discussed. However, I cannot find information on stackexchange about actually connecting to a remote node? What is the proper way to use, for example, node.moneroworld.com's node?
monero-wallet-cli supports a command line argument "daemon-address" that allows you to specify the host and port to use instead of the defaults. The argument value takes the form host:port.
So if you wanted to run monero-wallet-cli using a remote node being hosted by node.moneroworld.com, you would launch simplewallet with the following arguments:
monero-wallet-cli --daemon-address node.moneroworld.com:18089
You can see some of the code that deals with initialization and connecting to the daemon on the github: https://github.com/monero-project/bitmonero/blob/master/src/simplewallet/simplewallet.cpp#L1215
There's a thread in reddit on the subject here: https://www.reddit.com/r/Monero/comments/4jloss/nodemonerohashcom_public_remote_node_for_your/
In short, simply use the switch --daemon-host when calling monero-wallet-cli, then append the ip or hostname. eg. ./monero-wallet-cli --daemon-host node.monerohash.com
node.monerohash.com is a free, publicly accessible node, but it should be noted it is NOT trustworthy and will compromise your privacy if you connect to it, so use it at your own risk, it is far better to set up your own remote node on a VPN and use that. In the link it also details how to connect to a tor node too.