The discrepancy in your posted screenshots is based on what mode the wallet is being run in. The GUI wallet supports both "Simple" and "Advanced" modes. When in advanced mode, you have the extra tabs and menu items.
You can switch modes by clicking the "Close wallet" button, restarting the GUI and when in the opening wizard, open the existing wallet and change the mode to advanced mode (after language). You will then have all the advanced options available to you.
Per your comment above:
my intent is not mainly to be able to use a remote node, but rather not to download the blockchain
Unfortunately it is a little confusing for new users understanding the various options/modes.
There are two different "simple" modes, one with bootstrap and one without. The key difference is that when using the bootstrap variety, the blockchain is downloaded to your computer at the same times as connecting you to a remote node, so you can use your wallet immediately, without needing to wait for the full blockchain to download.
Advanced mode allows for the fullest flexibility. Here you can specify if you want to download the full blockchain, use only a remote node, use a specific remote node, or use a mixture (e.g. bootstrap).
As your intent is to use a remote node and not store the whole blockchain, you can safely just use simple mode (without the bootstrap option). However, you cannot specify which remote node is used while in this mode. Therefore, if you want to specify a remote node yourself, you will need to have started your wallet in the advanced mode.
I'll end with pointing out one other thing. Although using a remote node, with no bootstrap, wont actually store the blockchain, it still needs to scan for outputs, which takes time and bandwidth. Depending on how long since you last scanned, this can take some time. This is why there are two progress bars. Wallet sync is the scan progress, daemon sync is the daemons download progress. If you are using a remote node (daemon), it shows how much the remote node has downloaded. If you are using a local node, it shows your local daemon download progress.
Hope this helps clarify.