I'm trying to better understand the CryptoNote protocol and Monero's current codebase, and I'm having trouble grasping how transactions are made in the protocol. I've read over the CNS standard and I partially understand topics such as the CryptoNote block template/header, transaction template etc. What I am confused on however, is how all this information is turned into a transaction hash that can be relayed and accepted by the network. I find it that I would have an easier time understanding the whole concept if I were to do it on paper at least partially, so what would be the steps to create a Monero transaction that could be relayed to the network on a piece of paper?
This is the structure of a Monero transaction, listed in the exact order that the information will appear in the transaction structure: Size requirements for different "pieces" of a Monero transaction
Many of these terms will be confusing to you. A great resource for understanding all of the elements of a Monero transaction is the Zero to Monero paper https://ww.getmonero.org/library/Zero-to-Monero-1-0-0.pdf