1

state 1

Initial positions:

A: 5.0032
B: 3.0000
C: 3.2000

...

state 2

G:5.0032
H:2.0000
I:1.0000 
J:2.0000
K:1.2000

Let's assume

A -> G
B -> H,I
C -> J,K

I get you cannot tell for sure which inputs have been used to create the outputs (the same principle like a mixer). So G could have been created by sending 3 from B and 2.0032 from C or any other mix out of A, B, C

But isn't it more probable that an odd amount of the same size output/input is a full transaction?

Maybe I also have a misunderstanding what can be seen on the blockchain but there must be inputs/outputs in order to verify that the sum of inputs equals the sum of outputs in a block.

2

Monero output amounts are encrypted. You cannot tell anything at all about the value of the inputs or outputs to a transaction (with the exception of freshly created coinbase outputs which have public amounts so that inflation can be tracked).

The validation that the sum of outputs+fee perfectly balances the sum of inputs is achieved using zero knowledge proofs.

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