Is there a recommended source of information as to how Monero interacts with wallets and other nodes? I'd like to get as much information as possible about the structure of the source code and am having some trouble understanding just from looking at the source code
Daemons (nodes) talk to each other using the epee levin protocol.
Both the wallet and daemon also expose JSON-RPC servers (so JSON sent over HTTP).
The methods are documented at:
With source code scattered in various places. The underlying server code is in:
With protocols defined in: